Thursday, December 4, 2014

Bangkok royal Orchid Pradise

Wednesday, December 29, 2010


Story of FIAT Car.
Giovanni Agnelli
     Fiat was born within the Italian industrialization era. When the corporate initial appeared it sparked instant marvel & currently because of this, are recognised globally in concert of the foremost powerful automotive firms. This power because of owning quite a couple of automotive makers. The Fiat brand symbolises nice automotives and reflects the car makers standing.
1899 to 1911
     The Societa Anonima Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino charter was signed on July eleven 1899, this signalled the beginning of Fiat, out of the many of the board of administrators, a Director Giovanni Agnelli decided to form the automotive company extraordinarily successful additionally he had the ways to form this happen. Driven by his motivation to place Fiat on the automotive makers map, in come back for his work, Giovanni Agnelli was given the role of Managing Director in 1902.
Carso Dante
FIAT Carso Dante 1904
     In Carso Dante the primary automotive plant for the Italian manufacturer, the primary of the many, opened its doors. Its workforce, 150 people. a formidable twenty four cars rolled of the road, together with the 3/12 hp. Giovanni recognised that Fiat would wish a trademark, in 1904 an Oval on a dark blue background brand was born.
When the automotive Tour visited Italy, nine Fiat cars competed and finished the race.
     Vincenzo Lancia entered & won the Sassi-Superga, a hillclimb automotive race during a twenty four bhp Fiat automotive in 1902, this success drove Giovanni Agnelli, FIAT President to enter an eight hp Fiat automotive within the following Italian automotive Tour, Agnelli even set a race record.
US 1912 / 1925
     1908, saw Fiat land on US soil, and open its initial US factory. This gave the corporate the boost they required they expanded at an unforseen rate and commenced building factories to manufacture specific engine components. the corporate saw the necessity to provide quite simply cars so it ventured into trucks, marine engines and industrial vehicles even tram production. The Italian company was creating its mark, it continued to compete and win automotive races, quite usually setting records because it went. Fiat was onto a winner.

     Giacomo Malle Trucco was given leadership to just accept the development of a brand new automotive factory - Lingotto factory in Italy, work began in 1916. This new Fiat factory was undoubtedly the largest automotive factory in Europe, it had been designed on 5 floors, and right at the highest a check track was made the work was finally completed in 1922. This check track & factory is that the image of Italian automotive trade.
     The War, brought misfortune for several automotive firms , Fiat was no totally different but they did manage to fully recover by 1923, in recognition of this Giovanni Agnelli was given a promotion, he was currently the new Fiat CEO. several new models were released and in recognition for there loyal staff, staff got health plans etc, additionally financing was introduced on their cars.
1926 / 1938
     Fiat driven by the dictator Mussolini's autarchic ways that, meant the automotive company had to seem at the international marketplace for its cars, mainly the domestic half. As a part of this strategy The Topolino was released and ran until production ceased in 1955. additionally the Tariffa minima, aka Balilla, was additionally released a preferred model that gave exceptionally smart fuel economy. 1937 saw the development of another automotive plant - Mirafiori
This new new breed of automotive plants main aim was mass production.
1939 / 1951
     WWII saw automotive production cut back to nearly nothing, but industrial vehicles saw the alternative. throughout this point several of the businesses automotive plants were destroyed , but this failed to section them. The President of Fiat Giovanni Agnelli, sadly died in 1945.
His new replacement Vittorio Valletta was issued the role of CEO.
1952 / 1965 R & D
     After the tip of the war Fiat recognised the necessity to analysis a lot of, so started taking a good interest in researching new ways, innovations and practices. the five hundred & 1400 were introduced because the initial mass production model, these cars had heating and ventilation systems never seen before. the advantages of diesel were looked into soon when rthe 1400 diesel engine was released in 1953. 1958 saw a rise in production and sales, automotive plants were designed overseas and Mirafiori doubled its automotive factories. Fiat had firmly placed Italy in an economic boom. 1955 saw the discharge of the five hundred, an oversized rear engined automotive. The automotive sold well and in 1957 a brand new version was released, 1960, saw a five hundred Giardinetta, a lot of a form of estate / station wagon. additionally Fiat introduced 1300, 1500 & 1800 automotive models.

1965 / 1977
The mid 60's brought a fast growth in sales in Italy and its export market. The Italian automotive ratio had previously been one automotive to ninety nine, but currently it had been nearer to twenty-eight cars to ninety six. Fiat saw this as a chance to construct a lot of factories throughout Italy, this spurred the intro of the 850.
     The first front wheel drive automotive was introduced in 1971 the 127, this auto was instant success, it even received automotive of the Year 1971. Gianni Agnelli grand son of Giovanni, became Fiat President in 1966. Like his Grandfather he ensured the corporate would consider automotive production whereas still researching, ike several alternative automotive makers suffered greatly throughout the late 70's oil strikes.
1978 / 1990
Robogate, turned the corner for automed assembling, a versatile robotic system introduced in 1978.
     The years between 1978 and 1990 saw several comes for Fiat together with the fitting of Fiat Avio - Auto - Engineering - Ferraviaria, Comau, Teksid & Magnet Marelli.
     The Panda was introduced in 1980 and styled by famed designer Guigiaro in 1980, atiny low automotive out there in 4x4. The Uno, a extremely rare web site these days was the image of the automotive rejuvination in 1982. The Fiat Uno had electronics unforseen before, it came during a vary of models from a regular one.1 to a 1.4 IE Turbo, this model additionally had a full electronic dashboard and turbo charger. The Tipo was released in 1989 and created automotive of the year, the automotive had conquered innovative technical problems and not forgetting the Strada avaiable in several models the highest being the Abarth.

1991 / 2003
The Tempra was introduced in 1990, the subsequent year the new five hundred was released, followed by the Punto, this automotive gave the impression to replace the Uno, it came with similar engine sizes and additionally was out there during a turbo-charged model it had been given automotive of the Year award in 1995. Then came the Coupe, a brand new breed of automotive.
     Fiat released the Ulysse in 1995 to tackle the multi purpose vehicle market, as way as cars are involved the Bravo, Brava and therefore the Barchetta / Cinnequento were released all released within the same year. 1996 / 1997 saw the intro of the Palio, Marea and Marea we have a tendency to.

100th Yr Anniversary
     In commemoration of the one hundred Year Anniversary, the initial brand was modified to a spherical brand from the orginal blue oval brand.
The year 1998 saw the discharge of the Seicento, a automotive smaller than its Cinnequento predecessor, the perfect automotive for the Italian individuals, tiny simple to manouvre and easier to park, and especially was nice for driving roound the skinny streets within the town, this year additionally saw the discharge Multipla.

A new millenium
     The year 2000 saw the discharge of a brand new breed automotives together with the Diablo this new automotive had its debut at the Paris Motor Show it showcased as a billboard / informal car. The Stilo introduced in 2001, was the the primary real technologically advanced automotive for Fiat of the millenium, it sported trendy appearance and plenty of toys and came during a sort of engine sizes.
     2002 was the year for restyling the vehicles included during this were the New Ulysse, Multipla and therefore the even the 2001 Stilo MW, this model was restyled with a lot of aggresive options.
The FIAT future
     It was recognised in 2003 that already successful Punto required a restyle, so the new model of Punto was released it had totally different styling and cam e with a further engine size a one.3 Multijet 16v. the subsequent autumn the Panda was re-released and received automotive of the Year Award. The subsequent year the Fiat plan was released a brand new variety of MPV ( Multi Purpose Vehicle) a primary for the Italian company.
     As for 2007 - The Grande Punto has created its mark, an even bigger version of the Fiat Punto with several additions to the initial, additionally the Fiat five hundred is to be re-released with stiffer suspension, wider arches and awesome one hundred fifty hp turbo charged engine - zero to sixty in eight seconds. As expressed by Giovanni Fiat continues to innovate with advanced technology method into the long run.

Monday, December 20, 2010

Rolls Royce Car

Story of  Rolls Royce Car

Charles Rolls
     Almost specifically 100 years ago, May 4, 1904 2 gentlemen met within the Midland Hotel in Manchester to speak regarding cars. Charles Rolls was an aristocrat with an entrepreneurial spirit and a passion for cars. He had heard that an engineer of remarkable talent, named Henry Royce was manufacturing cars of quality, end and reliability so much exceed those of different existing brands at the time, and was going to obtain one for himself. Rolls was therefore struck by constant automotive and Henry Royce who immediately determined to induce into partnership with him ... therefore was born one among the largest names in automotive history.
     The history of Rolls-Royce is actually wonderful, and includes world speed records on land, water and air patronage of royal families, heads of state, actors, sports figures, artists and business leaders. The company's success was primarily based merely obsession for technical excellence in all its forms. Henry Royce is additionally famous attributable to his motto: "Strive for perfection in everything you are doing. Get the most effective there's and build it higher. If none exist, design it. "
The experimental automotive
     The ideas of Royce and his team were tested in varied ways in which and in 1919 was engineered the primary experimental automotive, 1EX decision ("ex" is simply for "experimental"). The EX models were a relentless development of Rolls-Royce for a minimum of forty years, and ended with the 45EX within the late fifties. Some models EX resulted within the production of passenger cars, like the Phantom III (the 1st Rolls-Royce V12), whereas several others didn't follow constant fate.
 The 100EX
100 EX
     Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Ltd, currently located at Goodwood (in a pleasant space in southern England), lives up to the ideals of engineering Henry Royce, as evidenced by the flattering comments of consumers round the world against the new Phantom. A team of gifted designers and engineers created this automotive and it absolutely was so determined that the centenary celebrations were focused on the planning. So, the team has targeted on experimental automotive Rolls-Royce for the twenty-first century, known as 100EX.

Goodwood Phantom
     The styling of this 1st experimental automotive designed to Goodwood was developed in California by the designers of the Rolls-Royce team, below the leadership of chief designer Ian Cameron. As was the case for the Phantom, were taken into consideration the shapes and forms in historic cars Rolls-Royce, however this project incorporates a bite that creates it terribly modern. Impressed by the pure spirit of the experimental Rolls-Royce automotive, the 100EX is provided with all the options.
     The body is created of a light-weight aluminum spaceframe because the Phantom, however with a shorter wheelbase of a hundred mm. Compared to the Phantom may be a total of one hundred sixty five mm shorter and under seventy one mm. it's constant against the door of the Phantom, with the distinction that there are solely two. It additionally has a remarkable provision of the bags compartment, a part of that folds to make a picnic table. The engine may be a nine-liter V16 and sixty four valves.

      The media have speculated that this was a brand new production model, whose launch is imminent, however it's not. It's conceivable that some components of the 100EX will seem in any future model, that clearly taken into consideration by the corporate, however this automotive has been created particularly to celebrate this extraordinary moment within the history of Rolls-Royce. The 100EX are going to be presented at the 2004 edition of the Concorso d'Eleganza Villa d'Este, in honor of the centenary of Rolls-Royce and therefore the wonderful history of this event.

Sunday, December 19, 2010

Volvo Car

Story of Volvo Car
     The Volvo was born in Goteborg, Sweden, in 1927, founded as a subsidiary of the SKF factory creating ball bearings,
2 members from the Assar Gabrielsson and Gustav Larsson.
     The trademark Volvo was initial registered by SKF the could eleven, 1915 with the intention of using it for a special series of ball bearings for export to the U.S. market, however it had been never used. Was revived in 1927 for cars, since the Latin word "volvo", a term indicating movement, dynamism, may work fine to the assembly of cars.
     The name derives from the Latin volvere Volvo (rolling, sliding) and was chosen mutually of the 2 founders had worked for the SKF ball bearing factory, that became one in every of their initial customers, additionally the factory was founded with cash, in fact, SKF. The Volvo image is that the ancient chemical image for steel, chosen to symbolize the strength of steel utilized in Sweden for the assembly of cars, steel, in fact, of wonderful quality. The diagonal line through the grid, came shortly when to mend the present image to the radiator.
Since the dawn of the middle of attention was the Volvo safety.

     The first Volvo automotive was created April fourteen, 1927, and was named ÖV four. Production continued with cars designed to face up to the tough climatic and environmental conditions in Sweden.
     Following the Volvo cluster can expand into alternative areas, like lorries (now Volvo is that the world's second largest manufacturer of serious trucks), buses, construction machinery, agricultural tractors, marine engines, etc..

     In 1964 he opened the Volvo factory in Torslanda, still one in every of its most vital production facilities, where they're assembled off-road cars and high category.
     In 1965, he was open a production facility in Ghent (Belgium), currently the second most vital plant of Volvo, that are created mainly low-medium vary cars and a few of the foremost necessary numerically.
     The early '70s marked necessary events in its history, with the acquisition, in 1975, the development sector of the Dutch DAF cars and with the signing of a joint venture with Peugeot and Renault for the look and construction of an engine successful, the PRV and adopted by several alternative cars, like the Italian Lancia Thema.

     In 1989, was opened a replacement plant in Uddevalla, in cooperation with Pininfarina, where the cars are mainly created for niche markets.
In 1999 the Volvo sold its automotive division to Ford Motor Company cluster.
The cars are the majority Volvo sedans and station wagons and SUVs and solely recently allroads.
     The Volvo is taken into account the architect of dissemination (at least globally) of the family automotive (or station wagon) with the introduction of the model 240 (1975-1993) that though the merchandise versions additional or less rare, starting from the Coupe to the Family (242, 244, Turbo, 264, 265) owes its fame to the model 245 in varied versions that may amendment the perception of the station wagon vehicle by means that of labor by the family.

     The production was characterised by Volvo cars with rear-wheel drive longitudinal engine line technique that was initial deflected by the introduction of the "400" series (480, 440, four60) and abandoned with the looks of the Volvo 850 series that marked the passage of Volvo with front-wheel drive to 4 wheel drive and transverse engine.
     Volvo produces cars that are found within the so-called premium phase, competing with Alfa Romeo, Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Lexus and Saab. Volvo has a pair of 500 dealerships distributed in one hundred countries round the world, and hr of production is sold in Europe, half-hour in North America, the remaining 100 percent within the remainder of the planet.
Ford currently become a part of the multinational Volvo began manufacturing mechanical-based versions of this cluster.
     Recently, with versions bifuel (which particularly in Sweden have a good success) the Volvo styles and creates self limiting consumption and pollutant emissions.

     Since 1968 the Volvo one hundred forty, Volvo used a three-digit system to outline their own models, during which the primary digit indicates the amount of the automotive, the second the amount of cylinders of the engine and therefore the third the amount of ports, five in If a station wagon. Thus as an example the Volvo 164 could be a one hundred series, with 6-cylinder engine and four-door sedan body. There have been all due to the exceptions, like the Volvo 780 was a two-door coupe with four and half dozen cylinder engines, whereas the 760 additionally had 4-cylinder turbocharged engines. Some 240 were additionally 6-cylinder engines. In recent years, the last digit was never used, thus as an example the code 740 identified each the sedans and station wagons, whereas it remained on the vehicle identification plates.

     From the redesign of the Volvo 850, it additionally had a mutation within the vehicle identification code, thus currently the models are outlined by one or 2 letters followed by 2 digits, during which the second is usually a zero. The letter defines the S sedan or four-door sedans, the letter V stands for versatility and sets out the wagon, the letter C indicates the coupe or two-door cars, though the name defines XC SUVs and cars with characterization of off-road.

Friday, December 17, 2010

Citroen Car.

Story of Citroen Car.
Andre Citroen
     75 years ago the fascinating and vibrant history of Citroën cars began. In 1934, Citroën presented their 1st front-wheel drive cars and commenced a revolution in auto production.
     André Citroën was born in 1878. A successful student, he attended the Polytechnical faculty in Paris and worked for a few time with the automotive company "Mors". In 1905, at the age of twenty seven, he founded his 1st company, "André Citroën & Cie", that was modified to "Société des Engrenages Citroën" (Citroën Cog Factory ) in 1913. Conjointly in 1913, Citroën founded yet one more company to require advantage of a patent he had relating to carburettors. This company was located on the Quai de Javel (today Quai André Citroën) in Paris. Early in his career, Citroën was impressed by the assembly strategies of Henry Ford, who pioneered the employment of the assembly line as early as 1908 for the Ford Model T within the U.S.A. Citroën understood that he had to analyse production strategies which he had to divide it into single logical steps so as to calculate the economic production of an item mathematically.
     With the outbreak of World War I, André Citroën received a commission, starting in 1915, to supply seven 500 75mm grenades - sensible work for alittle company. Citroën was able to convince the French Ministry of Defence that he might deliver abundant larger quantities with industrial production. the corporate grew rapidly and in 1918 it occupied eighty,000 sq. Metres at the Quai de Javel in Paris where, in 1914, there have been still garden allotments. 12,000 folks were occupied manufacturing grenades. At the height the output reached 20,000 pieces!the corporate was terribly progressive within the social field: a cantine and a kindergarden were gift as was a dental clinic. Throughout the war, Citroën started brooding about the "days after". He talked concerning building 1,000 cars daily at a value that will enable everybody to possess one amongst his cars.
1919: the primary "Citroën".

      By 1919, the primary Citroën auto was made - the sort A. Equipped with a 4-cylinder engine of 1326 cubic cm (10-fiscal-HP) capability, it absolutely was capable of a prime speed of 65km/h. One was able to order six completely different body designs directly from the factory, this at a time where one got the chassis and also the engine from different manufacturers and had it completed by a coachworks of your own choice! Even the spare wheel and also the lighting were included within the value of F 7,205. From June to December 1919, Citroën made 2,500 cars. In 1920, they'd already made 20,200!

     Conjointly in 1920, Citroën 1st tested half-track autos known as "Autochenilles" using the patents of Adolphe Kégresse. In impassable regions they were terribly helpful, and their reliability helped to boost the name of Citroën as an automobile manufacturer. The half-tracks weren't solely employed by the defense force, in road-building and agriculture, however conjointly by completely different post offices, among them the Swiss PTT that equipped their "Autochenilles" with skis at the front.
     In 1921, the primary Citroën Taxis appeared on the streets of Paris. the large news at the Paris Motor Show in October was the five hp kind C, a true automotive for the folks with 856 cubic cm engine, sixty km/h prime speed, on the market as a Torpedo with 2 seats. The automotive was 1st on the market within the summer of 1922 and was sold solely in one colour: lemon yellow. The tiny automotive was a true success. In 1924, it absolutely was presented as a three-seater. The third seat was within the rear within the middle and also the passenger place his feet between the 2 front seats. This version, named the "Trèfle" (Clover Leaf) gained an excellent deal of fame. Up to March 1926, it stayed in production with solely minor changes - concerning ninety,000 were designed and quite variety still exist these days.

     When the B12 of 1925, the B14 was introduced in 1927, driven by a 1538 cubic cm engine with twenty two true horsepower. It absolutely was followed by the C4 in 1929. Conjointly in 1929, the C6 was introduced - the primary six cylinder Citroën (2442 cubic cm), and also the 1st Citroën to achieve a hundred km/h.
     André Citroën was terribly successful in drawing the public's attention with elaborate publicity campaigns. In 1922, airplanes wrote the name "Citroën" within the sky over Paris; in 1925 the name "Citroën" might are browse on the Eiffel tower: 200,000 lightbulbs were necessary and a number of other kilometers of cabling!
     From seventeen December 1922 to seven January 1923, a Citroën expedition crossed the Sahara desert by automobile for the primary time, from Algiers to Timbuktu, a distance of three,200 kms averaging one hundred fifty kms daily with 10hp B2 half-tracks - a massive effort for the period!
     From twenty eight October 1924 to twenty six June 1925, an additional expedition, the famous "Croisière Noire" (Black Journey) crossed the African continent from Algeria through Kenya to the Cape of excellent Hope.

     On four April 1931, the "Croisère Jaune" (Yellow Journey) started in Beruit. The goal was to achieve Beijing with the C4 and C6 kind half-tracks. In between there have been deserts, glaciers, mountains, and war zones. One C4F reached 4,208m and set a world altitude record for cars. Within the Himalayas, a part of the method through, the methods weren't driveable and also the cars had to be taken apart, carried through, and rebuilt afterwards! On twelve February, 1932 the cars triumphantly reached Beijing.
      Records...From the start of 1932, the C4 and C6 were equipped with the "Floating Power" engine that was mounted in a very new method, employing a Chrysler patent. The engine was secured with rubber mounts rather than being bolted on to the chassis, thereby eliminating major engine vibrations. The primary cars using this new engine mounting were recognizeable with a stylized swan in front of the Citroën double chevrons.
      By the top of 1932, the kinds "8", "10", and "15" followed, known as "Rosalie" when a Citroën "Rosalie 8" that lined three hundred,000 km in 134 days with a mean of quite ninety three km/h and breaking not less that 106 world records! a lot of runs of identical kind followed and proved the reliability of the tiny Citroën.
     André Citroën advertised his merchandise not simply to adults. Soon he made toy cars to capture the eye of youngsters - his future customers. The primary words he wished them to be able to speak were: "Mama, Papa, Citroën".
Financial issues...
      The primary clouds on the Citroën horizon appeared when the Wall Street crash of October 1929 and also the ensuing world crisis. In 1933, at the height of the crisis, Citroën rebuilt the factories at the Quai de Javel fully, so as to own sufficient capability to supply his impending new model. huge halls were designed. 6,000 guests were invited to the grand gap.

     The rebuild was a giant challenge for the corporate. In April 1933, t here was a strike that served to amplify the difficulties. The cars did not sell well abroad owing to the exchange rates and also the restrictions bound countries introduced against foreign merchandise. By the top of 1933, Citroën had such a big amount of debts, that the Michelin company had to be needed monetary facilitate.

Thursday, December 16, 2010

Lancia Car.

Story of Lancia Car.

Vincenzo Lancia
     The automobile maker, that prides itself on its rally and racy heritage, Lancia, was created in nineteen zero six, by Vincenzo Lancia and a detailed friend. The Italian primarily based automobile manufacture has been referred to as a automobile producer that is innovative and creates distinctive models for sale. Lancia is currently within the possession of the Fiat automobile cluster, and has been since it absolutely was acquired within the late nineteen sixties. Lancia creates luxury and high finish automobile models, primarily based heavily upon the Fait automobile models.
    The 2 founders of Lancia, Vincenzo Lancia and Claudio Fogolin, were each motoring enthusiasts and racing drivers

for the motoring cluster Fiat. In nineteen zero six the combine founded the Italian automobile producer, named Lancia & Co. primarily based in Turin, the newly fashioned company began their production vary with the tipo fifty one, a four cylinder motor mobile that began production in nineteen zero eight. Between nineteen 13 and nineteen eighteen Lancia created the Theta thirty five HP, the larger variation of the Epsilon, that came with the innovative electrical lights and begin motor. Between nineteen twenty 2 and nineteen thirty one Lancia created the Lambda, the primary ever load bearing monocoque body sort. Over eleven thousand of those innovative models were created, that conjointly came equipped with the primary freelance suspension.

      The Lancia Aurelia, penned by the designer Vittorio Jano, is taken into account a farther of the long distance, high performance grand tourers. In production for a complete of eight years, the Aurelia was the primary automobile fitted with a V6 engine, with over 13 thousand of the series created.
 Exporting to the USA proved unprofitable, with alittle scale export system in place at intervals the 19 fixities and nineteen sixties, however full export began within the mid nineteen seventies. The yankee market showed poor demand for the EU whole, and also the manufacture withdrew from the yankee market, together with Fait, within the early nineteen eighties.

     In the UK, Lancia cars suffered from a at risk of rusting, that plagued several models and client confidence within the Lancia whole. Lancia was well awake to the injury this saga was inflicting on its whole image, and with UKs being its biggest export market the corporate set to supply to half exchanges the cars for unaffected models through its dealership network.